1995

January 1, 1995 - Start of a truce in Bosnia for a period of four months.

May 1, 1995 - A four month cease fire ends in Bosnia and fights escalate.

May 2, 1995 - The Croats conquer large parts of western Slavonia from the Croate Serbs.

May 24, 1995 - After Serbs ignored UN orders to remove all heavy weapons around Sarajevo, NATO attacked a Serb ammunition depot. (stp: Associated Press, not confirmed by NATO.) The Serbs shelled UN designated "safe areas," including Tuzla, where 71 people are killed.

May 25, 1995 - NATO launches air strikes against Bosnian Serbs. NATO jets destroyed ammunition dumps near the nationalist Bosnian Serb stronghold of Pale (southwest of Sarajevo) in a show of force ordered by UN peacekeepers after Serb forces ignored the ultimatum to surrender heavy guns by the morning of May 25.


[Source: CNN Interactive]
View through F-18 HUD

The planes involved in the raid included four US F-16s, two US F-18s, two US EF-111 electronic warfare aircraft, one HC-130 refueling aircraft and two US search and rescue planes. They said two Spanish F-18s, one Dutch F-16 and one French Mirage also took part.

May 26, 1995 - Bosnian Serbs seize UN troops, using them as human shields against NATO air strikes. British Prime Minister John Major suggests it may be necessary to withdraw British troops from Bosnia.

May 30, 1995 - The North Atlantic Council demands that the shelling of safe areas be stopped and that UNPROFOR members and UN observers held hostage by the Bosnian Serbs be released unharmed, unconditionally.

June 2, 1995 - A USAF F-16C flying an Operation Deny Flight patrol mission was shot down over western Bosnia by a Bosnian Serb surface-to-air missile. Later in the day NATO received unconfirmed reports that the Bosnian Serb Army had recovered the pilot. NATO was not able to independently confirm this information. See AFSOUTH press release: US F-16 shot down.
[Note: the wreckage of his jet was not recovered until April 28, 2000.]

June 6, 1995 - The NATO ministers of defense agree on the establishment of an international quick reaction force, existing of French, British and Dutch forces.

June 8, 1995 - The pilot of the NATO F-16C aircraft, who was shot down over western Bosnia on 2 June 1995, was successfully rescued by search and rescue forces. The rescue mission was launched early Thursday morning after the downed pilot established voice contact with a NATO aircraft in the vicinity. All forces involved in the rescue mission returned safely to their respective bases.

July 11, 1995 - Bosnian Serb forces sweep into a safe area in the Bosnian city of Srebrenica, causing a massive exodus of civilians. Dutch UN peacekeepers request air strikes by Dutch and U.S. aircraft, but the request is not honored and the Dutch withdraw.

This is the first "safe area" taken over by the Bosnian Serbs.

July 18, 1995 - Bosnian government troops threaten to take UN peacekeepers hostage unless the UN orders air strikes to prevent the fall of Zepa. The Bosnian Serbs however threaten to respond by shelling eight Ukrainian peacekeepers near Zepa.

July 21, 1995 - After a meeting in London with international military leaders, NATO threatens to use air power to protect the safe area of Gorazde.

July 23, 1995 - UN commanders deployed in Bosnia order the Rapid Reaction Force (RRF) to send artillery units to the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo. UNPROFOR says the situation is escalating.

July 25, 1995 - After days of conflicting reports, the safe area of Zepa crumbles before advancing Bosnian Serb forces. Many Muslim refugees seek cover in the hills surrounding the town and others are packed onto evacuation buses by Bosnian Serbs. After executing the Muslim commander of the Muslim government forces, the Serbs burn the town.

July 26, 1995 - The US Senate votes to lift the arms embargo against Bosnia. This embargo weighs heaviest on Bosnian government forces because Serbs inherited weapons from the Serb-led Yugoslav army.

July 28, 1995 - The war widens as Croatia sends thousands of troops into Bosnia. Serbian supply lines are cut by this action and the towns of Glamoc and Grahavo in southwestern Bosnia are overtaken.

August 1, 1995 - The U.S. House of representatives votes to lift the arms embargo against Bosnia. U.S. President Clinton warns that this will involve U.S. troops in an evacuation of UN peacekeepers. NATO extends its threat of anti-Serb air strikes to protect UN safe areas beyond Gorazde.

August 4, 1995 - Four NATO aircraft attacked two Croatian Serb surface-to-air missile radar sites using anti-radiation "HARM" missiles. Two US Navy EA-6Bs and two US Navy F-18Cs struck sites near Knin and Udbina in self-defense after the aircraft's electronic warning devices indicated they were being targeted by anti-aircraft missiles.

August 4, 1995 - Croatia takes over large parts previously held by the Croatian Serbs. 150,000 Croatian civilians flee to Banja-Luka and Serb territory.

August 10, 1995 - The Commander-In-Chief, NATO Allied Forces Southern Europe and the Force Commander, United Nations Peace Force signed a memorandum of understanding on the execution of NATO air operations for protection of the UN "Safe Areas" in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Aim is to deter threats of attack against safe areas and to conduct air operations in order to eliminate any threat or to defeat any force engaged in an attack on a safe area.

The memorandum follows the London Conference of July 25, 1995 and the subsequent NAC decisions of July 26 and August 1, 1995.

August 28, 1995 - A grenade explodes on a market place in Sarajevo, killing 37 people.

August 30, 1995 - After the Sarajevo marketplace shelling, August 28, which claimed lives of 37 Sarajevans, UN and NATO investigated the case and decided that 'beyond reasonable doubt' the attack came from the Bosnian Serbi positions. Sarajevo was declared a Safe Area by the UN. Just after 00:00 GMT (02:00 local time) NATO commenced air strikes on Bosnian Serbs military targets in Bosnia in an operation designated Operation Deliberate Force.

According to television reports, an estimated 60 allied planes took part in action, including air navigation, radar jamming, fighter and bomber planes.

The second wave of attacks occurred on the following morning.

A French Mirage 2000 jet fighter with a crew of 2 was shot by a SAM-7 missile by Bosnian Serb militia near Pale. The two pilots, Cap. Frederic Chiffot and Lt. Jose Souvignet, made a safe bailout though at that time their fate was unknown. A search and rescue operation was immediately set up. Air strikes continued until August 31, 1995, when UN and NATO commanders decided to temporary suspend them to permit meetings between UN and Bosnian Serb officials.

September 1, 1995 - Operation Deliberate Force has been continuing for three days. More than 500 sorties have been completed. By the mean time, UN artillery on Mt. Igman are blasting Serbian guns and other targets.

NATO and UN are demanding lifting of the Serb siege of Sarajevo, removal of heavy weapons from the heavy weapons exclusion zone around Sarajevo, and complete security of other UN safe areas.

NATO stopped the air raids and gave an ultimatum to Bosnian Serb leaders. The deadline is set as Monday, September 4, 11 o'clock local time.

September 2, 1995 - The North Atlantic Council, taking note of a report by NATO military commanders, stated that the Bosnian-Serb reply to UN demands was not a sufficient basis for the termination of air strikes, and set out further conditions.

September 5, 1995 - NATO jets flying from bases in Italy and from an American aircraft carrier have resumed air attacks on Bosnian Serb positions around Sarajevo and near the Bosnian Serb headquarters at Pale. NATO officials said the attacks were resumed after the Bosnian Serbs failed to comply with UN demands.

September 6 - NATO air strikes are continuing.

September 6, 7, and 8, 1995 - NATO forces conducted search and rescue missions for the two downed French aircrew members. While over Bosnia on the night of 8 September, two NATO crew members were slightly wounded by enemy fire as their aircraft attempted to locate the downed French aviators. All three missions returned to their bases without confirmed contact with the French air-crew.

September 8, 1995 - In Geneva, peace negotiations under the leadership of Mr. Holbrooke lead to an agreement on splitting up Bosnia in a Muslim-Croate and a Serb part.

At the same time Croats retake much of northern, western Bosnia from the Serbs.

September 10, 1995 - A US Navy ship, in support of NATO Operation Deliberate Force, launched Tomahawk Land Attack Missiles (T-LAMs) against Bosnian Serb air defense assets in northwestern Bosnia. Thirteen missiles were launched by the USS Normandy on station in the Adriatic. The launches began at 1841 (GMT), 2041 (CEDT).

September 14, 1995 - At 2000 GMT, air strikes were suspended to allow the implementation of an agreement with Bosnian Serbs, to include the withdrawal of heavy weapons from the Sarajevo exclusion zone. The initial 72 hour suspension was eventually extended to 114 hours.

September 20, 1995 - General Bernard Janvier (Commander, UNPF) and Admiral Leighton Smith (CINCSOUTH), at the end of the suspension period, agreed that resumption of air strikes of Operation Deliberate Force was at the moment not necessary as Bosnian Serbs had complied with the conditions set out by the UN.

September 26, 1995 - Bosnia, Croatia and Yugoslavia came to an agreement in New York on constitutional principles: elections, a government and constitutional court.

September 28, 1995 - NATO forces suspended the French air- crew search based on the French assessment that further missions would not be productive.

October 4, 1995 - On three separate occasions, NATO aircraft, while conducting routine Deny Flight patrols over Bosnia Herzegovina, reacted to being illuminated by fire control radars by firing one HARM missile on each occasion in self-defense.

October 5, 1995 - Agreement was reached on a 60 day truce, as from October 10, 1995. Talks were planned to take place on October 31, in Dayton, Ohio, USA.

October 8, 1995 - In response to threats to UN personnel, the UN called for close air support (CAS) over an area south of Tuzla. NATO aircraft promptly responded but — due to poor weather conditions — it was impossible to acquire a definite fix on the assigned targets. Responding to a renewed request for CAS issued by the UN on 9 October 1995, several NATO aircraft successfully attacked a Bosnian Serb command and control bunker.

October 31, 1995 - Start of the peace conference in Dayton with the presidents of Croatia, Bosnia and Serbia.

November 13, 1995 - The international tribunal indicts six Bosnian Croats for war crimes and crimes against humanity.

November 16, 1995 - The international tribunal indicts Bosnian Serb leaders Radovan Karadzic and General Ratko Mladic for a second time, charging them with genocide over alleged massacres at Srebrenica.

November 21, 1995 - After three weeks of negotiations and 43 months of war, the presidents Izetbegovic, Tudjman and Milosevic initial the peace agreement. Agreement was reached for the peaceful integration of remaining Serb-held land in Croatia and to strengthen the Muslim-Croat federation in Bosnia.

November 22, 1995 - The Security Council adjourn the arms embargo against all republics of former Yugoslavia.

December 12, 1995 - The crew of the downed French Mirage aircraft was freed and handed over to French authorities.

December 14, 1995 - The Dayton peace agreement is signed in Paris today. The war in Bosnia is formally terminated, the longest war in Europe after the end of WWII. On the same day, two grenades explode on a market place in Sarajevo.

December 15, 1995 - The UN Security Council Resolution 1031 terminated, inter alia, resolutions Resolution 781, Resolution 816, 824, and 936 which provided authority for Operation Deny Flight.

Today, the United Nations Security Council approved Resolution 1033 in which the IFOR mandate is described.

December 16, 1995 - In their meeting, the North Atlantic Council agreed that Operation Deny Flight should be terminated on Transfer of Authority to the Implementation Force for Bosnia-Herzegovina; Operation Deny Flight thus ceased on 20 December 1995. A formal closure ceremony was held at Fifth ATAF Headquarters in Vicenza, Italy on 21 December 1995.

More information can be found in part II of the chronology From UNPROFOR to IFOR.