Operation Determined Guarantor


The UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1199 on September 13, 1998, which demanded to all parties to end hostilities and maintain a ceasefire in Kosovo.

On October 12, 1998, the North Atlantic Council issued an Activation Order for Operation Determined Force, which allowed for limited air strikes and a phased air campaign if Yugoslav authorities refused to comply with UN demands.

Yugoslav president Milosevic agreed to cease hostilities and withdraw mobilized forces in Kosovo and accept international verification of compliance on October 15, 1998.

The UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1203 on October 24, 1998, which endorsed and supported both OSCE and NATO verification missions.

On October 30, 1998, the North Atlantic Council approved the plan for Operation Eagle Eye. Two weeks later, on November 13, the NAC approved Operation Determined Guarantor, of which the execution started on December 4. On December 6, troops were deployed to the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Headquarters was activated on December 10, 1998.


The Extraction Force (EFOR) was a NATO contingency force ready to extract verifiers of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and Persons with Designated Special Status (PDSS) from Kosovo in the event all other means are unsuccessful and at the request of OSCE. Actions would be performed at short notice with minimum necessary use of force. It would be followed by a rapid re-deployment of the forces outside the Former Republic of Yugoslavia.

The headquarters of the Extraction Force was stationed in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and comprised of about 1,500 persons from several NATO countries.

Admiral James Ellis — Commander in Chief Allied Forces Southern Europe — was the Commander of Determined Force for the on-going NATO Kosovo verification operations, including the NATO Extraction Force.


The primary mission of the extraction force was:

  • Conduct the extraction of OSCE KVM verifiers and/or PDSS in part or in whole in a permissive environment.
  • Conduct the emergency evacuation and extraction of a limited number of OSCE Kosovo Verification Mission verifiers and/or Persons with Designated Special Status in a specific geographical location in an uncertain environment.
  • Conduct extraction operations, including hostage rescue in an uncertain environment, or OSCE KVM Verifiers and/or PDSS from specific geographical areas.
  • Conduct large scale or full extraction of OSCE KVM verifiers and/or PDSS in a hostile environment.

Request For Extraction

The following guidelines were set out:

  • The OSCE KVM Head of Mission would have requested extraction through the military chain of command to the Supreme Allied Commander Europe, General Wesley Clark.
  • SACEUR would have informed the North Atlantic Council.
  • SACEUR will then order the extraction mission to take place.

Contributing Forces

The following countries contributed to Operation Determined Guarantor:

NATO Extraction Force Commander was French Army Brigadier General Marcel Valentin.

The Extraction Force was comprised of about 1,500 personnel as follows:

NATO Extraction Force

France Battalion

Netherlands Air Mobile Company
Air Component with 3 CH-47D Chinook Helicopters
Engineer Company

3 Ambulances

Italy Company
9 Helicopters

United Kingdom Warrior Company

Head Quarters 300 (international)
Source: NATO, NRC Handelsblad.